Ecosystem Services Modeler (ESM)
The Ecosystem Services Modeler is a spatial decision support system for assessing the value of natural capital for sustainable development. The Ecosystem Services Modeler provides 15 ecosystem service models that are based closely on the InVEST toolset developed by the Natural Capital Project. Fully integrated into the TerrSet system, users can access a powerful platform for deriving the data for use in the 15 models, such as deriving future land use scenarios using the Land Change Modeler and predicted future precipitation using the Climate Change Adaptation Modeler to assess the impacts on water yield or sedimentation.
Water Yield: measures the average annual yield based on inputs such as precipitation, land cover, evapotranspiration.
Hydropower: estimates the potential energy production from a reservoir and its value.
Water Purification: calculates nutrient retention and the avoided cost of water treatment.
Sediment Retention: estimates sediment retention in a watershed and the avoided cost of sediment removal.
Carbon Storage and Sequestration: estimates the amount of carbon currently stored or sequestered in the landscape and its value.
Timber Harvest: models total biomass and net present value of harvested timber at the parcel level.
Habitat Quality and Rarity: assesses the impacts of anthropogenic threats on the quality and rarity of habitats.
Crop Pollination: evaluates the abundance and economic value of pollinators for agriculture.
Habitat Risk Assessment: an alternative to the Habitat Quality and Rarity approach, the Habitat Risk Assessment (HRA) model focuses on management strategies and exposure/consequences.
Offshore Wind Energy: evaluates potential wind energy sites and their economic value.
Aesthetic Quality: models the visibility/visual impact of developments. The TerrSet approach includes a full consideration of atmospheric conditions on visibility.
Overlapping Use: calculates the frequency and importance of human activities within a management zone.
Coastal Vulnerability: evaluates the exposure of coastal communities to storm-induced erosion and inundation.
Marine Aquaculture: estimates the productivity and economic value of existing aquaculture systems or identifies the best potential sites for new aquaculture projects.
Wave Energy: evaluates wave-generated energy provision potential including consideration of the siting of wave energy conversion facilities.
The Ecosystem Services Modeler (ESM) is closely based on the InVEST tools developed by the Natural Capital Project. Fifteen ecosystem service models have been implemented. In this illustration, ESM is used to evaluate water yield in the year 2100. The predicted land cover input was generated by LCM and the predicted precipitation was generated by CCAM.